Any of a class of crystalline solids in electrical conductivity between a conductor and an insulator is referred to as Semiconductor. Semiconductors are used in the manufacture of various kinds of electronic devices, such as diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits.
A semiconductor foundry is a facility that manufactures semiconductor devices, such as integrated circuits (ICs), for various applications. A typical semiconductor foundry is equipped with state-of-the-art equipment and processes that are designed to create precise and high-quality semiconductor chips.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor, such as metallic copper, and an insulator, such as glass.
Their resistance falls as their temperature rises; conductors are the opposite. Its conducting properties may be altered in useful ways by introducing impurities into the crystal structure.
These steps include wafer fabrication and device packaging.
Wafer fabrication involves preparing a silicon wafer, which serves as the base material for chip production. The wafer is coated with a layer of photoresist material, and then a photolithography process is used to pattern the wafer surface with a precise pattern of the desired device features. After this, several layers of materials are deposited onto the wafer using a variety of processes such as chemical vapor deposition, sputtering, and etching. These layers are then patterned by lithography before being etched away to form the desired features and circuitry on the wafer surface.
After the wafer fabrication process is complete, the produced wafers are moved to a separate processing line where they are separated into individual chips and wire bonded to external contacts. The chips are tested for quality before being shipped to customers.
The production process in a typical semiconductor foundry involves a wide range of equipment and processes, including photolithography, deposition, etching, ion implantation, and testing. The foundry must also implement rigorous quality control measures to ensure that the final products meet the specified requirements.
In two video, you get a peek of a typical semiconductor fab from Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Limited; a Taiwanese multinational semiconductor company (TSMC) and Global Foundry; a United States semiconductor foundry.
Semiconductor Technology at TSMC, 2011
The semiconductor foundry process is complex and requires careful attention to detail at every step to produce high-quality chips that can power modern electronics and applications from smartphones to satellites.