What goes on inside the Smartphone

Understanding the components inside a smartphone can help users troubleshoot issues and choose the best smartphone based on their needs.

Smartphones have become an essential part of our daily lives. As we use them to perform different tasks, have you ever wondered what goes on inside these small but powerful devices? In this article, we’ll explore the components and processes that make smartphones work.


The processor or the Central processing unit (CPU) is like the brain of the smartphone. It is responsible for executing instructions and controlling the other components. The processor is a chip that consists of multiple cores, which are responsible for performing different tasks simultaneously. The more cores a processor has, the faster it can perform tasks. Different smartphones come with different processors, and the choice of processor can determine how well a smartphone performs.


Memory is important for storing instructions and data. Smartphones come with two types of memory – Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read-Only Memory (ROM). RAM is temporary memory that stores data when an application is running. When an app is closed, the data in RAM is deleted to create space for other applications. Hence, having more RAM makes a smartphone faster. ROM, on the other hand, is permanent memory that is used to store the operating system and important applications.


The battery is responsible for powering the smartphone. It is a rechargeable lithium-ion battery that stores energy and provides the power needed for the device to function. The battery capacity usually varies depending on the model and brand of the smartphone. A larger battery capacity means longer battery life.


The display is the screen of the smartphone that we interact with. It is made up of multiple layers, including a layer of thin-film-transistor (TFT), Liquid Crystal Display (LCD), and sometimes an Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) layer. The TFT layer controls the flow of electric current to the pixels, which are the smallest unit of display. The LCD layer displays the colours according to the input it receives from the processor while the OLED layer emits light when a current is passed through it.


Smartphone cameras have become an essential feature of smartphones. They are usually located on the back and front parts of the device and come with different resolutions. The main camera at the back usually comes with multiple lenses, which can adjust the focal length, aperture, and other parameters to capture different types of images.


Smartphones come with different connectivity options, like Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, GPS, and mobile data. Wi-Fi and Bluetooth allow the smartphone to connect to other devices, like laptops, speakers, and other smartphones, while GPS allows the device to receive location information, useful for apps like maps. Mobile data allows the smartphone to connect to the internet using cellular networks.

Smartphones have a complex structure of hardware components that interact with the software to create the user’s experience. Understanding the components inside a smartphone can help users troubleshoot issues and choose the best smartphone based on their needs.

The advent of the smartphone and apps has enabled people to perform various tasks right from their phone. There is a lot of fascinating physics that goes on inside a mobile phone, however, with advances in technology, newer smartphones have even more capabilities.

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